National Co-ordinator:
Ricky Brisson
P.O. Box 7420
Bondi Beach 2026 NSW
E-mail:
 
     
 
International Adoption Statistics

  World Summary   By Receiving Country   By Country of Origin   Australian Statistics   Articles   Peter Selman  


Peter Selman, BA, DPSA, PhD
d.o.b. 12/06/1941
Email:

Peter Selman is Visiting Fellow in the School of Geography, Politics & Sociology at the Newcastle University, UK. His main areas of research interest are child adoption, teenage pregnancy and demographic change & public policy.

He is currently Chair of the Network for Intercountry Adoption and a member of the Board of Trustees of the British Agencies for Adoption & Fostering, He is Research and Literature Advisor to the UK's Intercountry Adoption Centre and has been consultant on adoption statistics for several international bodies including the Hague Conference on Private International Law and the United Nations Population Division.

He is editor of Intercountry Adoption; Development, trends and perspectives (British Agencies for Adoption & Fostering, 2000) and has written many articles and chapters on adoption policy.


 Africa

Intercountry Adoption: the African context  
www.aican.org www.aican.org

/showurl.php?url=3011 Africa has become the new frontier for intercountry adoption, which has increased by almost 300% in just eight years, when globally rates are at a 15 year low . The top 10 sending countries in Africa are responsible for almost 90% of 41,000+ intercountry adoptions in the continent in less than 10 years.

This rise is set against a backdrop of globalisation, the shortage of adoptable children in other parts of the world, increasing poverty in Africa, weak institutional law enforcement capacity, and a lack of accurate data on adoptable children.

An increasing number of illicit activities relating to adoptions on the African continent include child selling and buying, trafficking, and improper financial gains in the context of intercountry adoption. These are a clear indication of the lack of preparedness for the number of intercountry adoption applications being received.

According to international law, intercountry adoption should be a last resort, with family-based, permanent and domestic solutions generally preferable. The onus is on African states to take urgent and decisive measures to strengthen families and communities to take care of children in their country of origin.

Ongoing efforts to educate communities and improve the socio-economic conditions of vulnerable children and their families are a necessary accompaniment to adoption law reform.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Africa


Intercountry Adoptions in Africa: Facts and Figures  
www.aican.org www.aican.org

/showurl.php?url=3012 Inter-country adoption has generally shown an increasing trend in Africa within the period 2000-2009 with few exceptions. It increased by twenty-fold, from 245 in 2000 to 6,393 in 2009 and slightly lowered to 6,322 in 2010

The top ten countries that sent children to various parts of the world through adoptions in 2008 and 2009 are Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, DRC, Mali, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, Morocco, Burkina Faso, and Cameroon

Ethiopia sent more than two-thirds of the total sent by all African countries in 2009 and almost similar proportion in 2010

The least ten countries that sent children to various parts of the world through adoptions in 2009 are Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Lesotho, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Equatorial guinea, Egypt and Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Africa


Articles

Adoption Advocate No. 44: Global Trends in Intercountry Adoption: 2001-2010, Published February 2012 by Peter Selman with additional commentary by William Rosen, Chair, NCFA International Committee
www.adoptioncouncil.org www.adoptioncouncil.org
This article is based on a presentation given by Dr. Peter Selman at the Holt International Forum in Washington, DC in April 2011. Some of the charts and tables will be published in a more detailed form and with more extensive commentary in Dr. Selman’s forthcoming chapter in the book Intercountry Adoption: Policies, Practices, and Outcomes, to be published by Ashgate in 2012 (edited by J.L. Gibbons and K.S. Rotabi). We are grateful to Ashgate and the book’s editors for granting Dr. Selman and NCFA permission to make these resources available in the Adoption Advocate in advance of the full book’s publication.

The decline in the number of intercountry adoptions in the United States over the past six years is well known. The aim of this paper is to go behind these numbers to explore this decline – and the rise that preceded it – in a global context. Data on 23 receiving states have been used and the analysis will extend to the end of 2010, so covering the expedited adoptions following the earthquake in Haiti, the case of Artyom Savelyev and its impact on Russian adoption, and the ongoing problems surrounding other sending countries such as Guatemala, Nepal, and Vietnam. The implications of these changes and prospects for the future will be discussed with special reference to Africa as a more recent major source of internationally adopted children.

The global number of intercountry adoptions peaked in 2004 after a steady rise in annual numbers from the early 1990s. Since then, annual numbers have decreased to the point that by 2008 the total was lower than it had been in 2001 (see Figure 1), and by 2009 lower than it was in 1998 (see Table 1). During this time, the rise and fall was evident in most regions and countries. In 2009, however, things began to change, with more children going to European countries than to the United States – which had, until that time, accounted for about half of all international adoptions since the mid-1980s. This paper will review these recent trends, giving particular attention to variations between key sending and receiving countries while exploring some of the factors that lie behind the numbers.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Articles


Global Trends in Intercountry Adoption: 2001-2010  
www.aican.org www.aican.org

/showurl.php?url=3014 The decline in the number of intercountry adoptions in the United States over the past six years is well known. The aim of this paper is to go behind these numbers to explore this decline – and the rise that preceded it – in a global context. Data on 23 receiving states have been used and the analysis will extend to the end of 2010, so covering the expedited adoptions following the earthquake in Haiti, the case of Artyom Savelyev and its impact on Russian adoption, and the ongoing problems surrounding other sending countries such as Guatemala, Nepal, and Vietnam. The implications of these changes and prospects for the future will be discussed with special reference to Africa
as a more recent major source of internationally adopted children.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Articles


RECEIVING STATES 2003 - 2012,STATES OF ORIGIN 2003 - 2011, Peter Selman, Newcastle University, UK  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
These tables are based on data provided by 23 receiving states. The statistics used for the United States are the Fiscal Year data on visas published by the US State Department and for 2010 include humanitarian visas issued after the Haiti earthquake. The tables are updated and extended versions of tables published in Selman P. (2009). The rise and fall of intercountry adoption in the 21st century in J. Gibbons & K. Rotabi K. (eds) Intercountry Adoption: Policies, practices, and outcomes (Ashgate 2012) and in Adoption Advocate 44 which is available at Adoption Advocate No. 44: Global Trends in Intercountry Adoption: 2001-2010, Published February 2012 by Peter Selman with additional commentary by William Rosen, Chair, NCFA International Committee All data subject to further revision and correction.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P (2006) "Trends in Intercountry Adoption 1998-2004: A demographic analysis of data from 20 receiving States" Journal of Population Research 23-1: 183-204
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2002) "Intercountry Adoption in the new millennium: the "quiet migration" revisited" Population Research & Policy Review 21-3 : 205-225.
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2009) "The rise and fall of intercountry adoption in the 21st century", International Social Work, 52-5: 1-20.
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2010) "Intercountry Adoption in Europe 1998-2008: patterns, trends and issues", Adoption & Fostering 34 (1): 4-19.
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2011) "Intercountry Adoption after the Haiti Earthquake: Rescue or Robbery?"Adoption & Fostering 35 (4): 41-49.
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2012) "The Global Decline in Intercountry Adoption, 2001-2010" Adoption Advocate, no 44.
Peter Selman: Articles


Selman P. (2012) "The Global Decline of Intercountry Adoption; What lies ahead?" Social Policy and Society,11 (3): 381-397.
Peter Selman: Articles


The Global Decline of Intercountry Adoption: What Lies Ahead?  
www.aican.org www.aican.org

/showurl.php?url=3015 This article examines the latest trends in intercountry adoption worldwide, based on data from twenty-three receiving countries. Trends in the number of children sent by states of origin are based on their returns to the Hague Special Commission or on estimates derived from country data provided by the receiving states. The analysis concentrates on the period from 2004 to 2010 when estimated annual global numbers declined from 45,000 to 29,000, fewer than those recorded in 1998. The article will also look at changes in the age – and other characteristics – of children sent. Discussion centres on changes in sending countries, exploring the declines in China, Russia and Guatemala, the rise in adoptions from Haiti after the earthquake of 2010 and the emergence of Africa – and in particular Ethiopia – as a significant source of children for adoption. The article concludes with a consideration of the implications of a continuing high demand from childless couples in developed countries on the intercountry adoption ‘market’; and the prediction of David Smolin that, unless truly reformed, intercountry adoption will eventually be abolished and labeled as a ‘neo-colonial mistake’.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Articles


Statistics

Global Number of International Adoptions  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
These estimates are provisional and this should be emphasized if quoted – attribute to PETER SELMAN, Newcastle University, UK
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Statistics


Global Trends in Intercountry Adoption: 2001-2010  
www.aican.org www.aican.org

/showurl.php?url=3018 The decline in the number of intercountry adoptions in the United States over the past six years is well known. The aim of this paper is to go behind these numbers to explore this decline, and the rise that preceded it, in a global context. Data on 23 receiving states have been used and the analysis will extend to the end of 2010, so covering the expedited adoptions following the earthquake in Haiti, the case of Artyom Savelyev and its impact on Russian adoption, and the ongoing problems surrounding other sending countries such as Guatemala, Nepal, and Vietnam. The implications of these changes and prospects for the future will be discussed with special reference to Africa as a more recent major source of internationally adopted children.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Statistics


Intercountry adoption in the new millennium; the “quiet migration” revisited  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
Intercountry adoption is not usually seen as a matter for demographers, although articles in the International Migration Review have looked at international adoption as a migratory process. This article outlines the author’s estimate of the number of intercountry adoptions world-wide, using data recorded by 18 receiving states in the 1990s. Data from selected receiving countries are used to estimate the number of adoptions from states of origin. Comparisons are made with data for 14 countries over the period 1980–89 collated by Kane (1993). The global estimate of at least 32,000 adoptions in 1998 is much higher than the numbers usually cited and suggest a rise of fifty percent over the previous decade. Total numbers are dominated by adoptions to the United States and from China and Russia. However standardisation against population size or number of live births suggests that the highest rates among receiving states are to be found in Scandinavia, while the highest rates for states of origin are in countries of Eastern Europe, followed by Korea – countries typified by very low birth rates. The article ends with a discussion of the implications of these findings for the future of international controls and the implementation of the 1993 Hague Convention.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Statistics


International Adoptions from The People's Republic of China 1992-2011  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
The Table below estimates the number of children sent for international adoption from 1992, the year in which such adoptions were formally recognised in Chinese law, to 2009. Adoptions from mainland China are recorded before that but they are few - c 100 in 1980s according to Kane and 1-200 to Canada; Norway, Sweden and the USA in 1990/91 - and have not been included in the totals below, which are based on the countries with known links to CCAA. Adoptions from Hong Kong SAR are not included.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Statistics




Trends in Intercountry Adoption: Analysis of Data DataData from 20 Receiving Countries, 1998–2004  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
The implications of developments in intercountry adoption worldwide in the early years of the twenty-first century are explored, based on analysis of data from 20 receiving countries. Between 1998 and 2004, intercountry adoption increased by 42 per cent. Problems in data collection and analysis are examined, as is the reliability of estimates of numbers of children sent by countries of origin when derived from data provided by receiving countries. Also considered are various measures of standardization which can be used to facilitate comparison between countries and show trends over time. The potential for more detailed comparative analysis is explored.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Statistics


Special Needs

Adoption of Children with Special Needs 2003-2012  
www.aican.org www.aican.org
The period from 1998-2012 has seen a remarkable rise and fall in the number of children moving for intercountry adoption each year. In 1998 there were c 31,700 adoptions; By 2004 this had risen to 45,000; By 2011 the global total had fallen to 23.596, the lowest figure since 1996. The number of children sent has fallen in most states of origin - the exception has been for Africa where number have risen in many countries.
Visit page...

Peter Selman: Special Needs